Early Mathematics Counts: Promising Instructional Strategies for Low- and Middle- Income Countries

There is a large body of evidence substantiating the importance of mathematical literacy and the key role of foundational mathematics in early years of education on later academic outcomes (Duncan et al., 2007; Duncan & Magnuson, 2011; Hanushek & Woessmann, 2008; Siegler et al., 2012). Despite this, we have little evidence from low- and middle-income countries on how to better ensure that students are learning the foundational skills in pre-primary through lower primary grades. Given that quality of instruction is key, we examined the evidence for the types of instructional strategies used in low- and middleincome contexts. We cannot link the effective instructional strategies to learning outcomes, given the limited information provided in reports we reviewed. However, understanding which strategies are used, and how they manifest in different contexts, is an important first step to understanding which strategies are effective for learning. This brief summarizes our review paper (Sitabkhan & Platas, 2018).