Reading achievement in the Philippines: The role of language complexity

This study looks at the impact of first language (L1, or “mother tongue”) complexity on reading achievement in the Philippines using Grade 3 Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) data collected in 2013 and 2019. EGRA data were collected from 232 schools in 2013, when students learned to read in the national languages of Filipino and English. These data on English and Filipino performance were collected again in the same schools in 2019, when students would have, according to policy, learned to read first in their mother tongue.

USAID Uganda School Health and Reading Program EGRA results Cluster 1 End of Primary 5, Cluster 2 End of Primary 4, Cluster 3 End of Primary 3

To measure the impact of SHRP on reading achievement, EGRA data were collected at the beginning of Primary 1 (P1) and then at the end of every school year through Primary 3, 4 or 5 depending on when the local language entered the program. Though there was little difference in local language cwpm at the end of P1, differences started to emerge at the end of P2 and by the end of P3, significant positive differences were found in 10 of the 12 languages.

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 2 Follow up 1, End or Primary 1: Lebacoli, Lugbarati, Lumasaba, and Runyoro-Rutoro and English

Have fundamental reading skills increased as a result of the USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program interventions? Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) data collected for 4 Cluster 2 languages (local languages Lebacoli, Lugbarati, Lumasaba, and Runyoro-Rutoro) and English at baseline, beginning of P1 compared to data collected at the end of P1 show increases in foundational pre-reading and emergent reading skills, significantly higher than increases found in control schools. That being said, the overall reading gains and scores are still lower than the ideal. Program learners performed better than control learners in virtually all reading skills assessed, most significantly in emergent literacy and pre-reading skills.

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 2 Baseline: Lebacoli, Lugbarati, Lumasaba, and Runyoro-Rutoro and English

This report summarizes the findings from a baseline assessment that was conducted in February and March, 2014 to determine the current status of reading achievement in the “Cluster 2” schools in which the Program will be working, as well as achievement in control1 schools that will be used as a basis for comparison in assessing the effectiveness of the interventions. The baseline assessment sets out to answer the following questions in an attempt to lay the foundation for and support a national literacy policy and subsequent reading program in primary schools nationwide. • What is the level of reading achievement among P1 and P32 learners in the local language and in English in Ugandan primary schools? • What is currently happening in P1 reading lessons? • How are teachers and schools supported to teach reading? • What should be the focus of future MoES and stakeholder support for reading?

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 1 Follow up 4, End or Primary 4: Ateso, Leblango, Luganda, Runyankore/Rukiga and English

Has reading achievement increased as a result of the USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program interventions? Early Grade Reading Assessment data collected for four Cluster 1 languages (Ateso, Leblango, Luganda and Runyankore-Rukiga) and English at the beginning of Primary 1 compared to end of Primary 4 show increases in fundamental reading skills, higher than increases found in control schools. No systematic differences were found between girls and boys. By the end of P4, learners in Program Schools are reading more words than learners in control schools and are closer to becoming fluent readers in both Local Language and English.

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 2 Follow up 2 End of Primary 2: Ateso, Leblango, Luganda, Runyankore/Rukiga and English

Has reading achievement increased as a result of the USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program interventions? Early Grade Reading Assessment data collected for 4 Cluster 1 languages (Ateso, Leblango, Luganda and Runyankore-Rukiga) and English show increases in fundamental reading skills, significantly higher than increases found in control schools. By the end of P2, learners in Program Schools could read more words and understand more of what they read than learners in control schools – this was true in all 4 Local Languages. Program learners could also read more words in English than learners in control schools.

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 1 Follow up 1: Ateso, Leblango, Luganda and Runyankore/Rukiga

To what extent did the Uganda School Health and Reading Program interventions1 improve early grade reading and the teaching of early grade reading in USAID/Uganda-supported primary schools over the course of the 2013 academic year? To answer this question, in October 2013, Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) data were collected as a follow up to the February/March, 2013 Baseline data collection efforts. Basic oral reading skills were assessed in the local language (i.e., Ateso, Leblango, Luganda, or Runyankore- Synopsis of findings: • Emergent literacy skills (listening comprehension and segmenting words into syllables) have increased in both treatment and control schools. • The ability to identify letter sounds has increased • Oral reading fluency has increased among Luganda and Runyunkore Rukiga speaking learners but there was no significant difference between treatment and control. • Teachers are changing their behavior in the classroom: • Support to teachers to improve reading is increasing

USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program Cluster 1 Baseline: Ateso, Luganda, Leblango, Runyunkore-Rukiga

This report summarizes the findings from a baseline assessment that was conducted in February and March, 2013 to determine the current status of reading achievement in the schools in which the School Health and Reading Program will be working, as well as achievement in “control” schools that will be used as a basis for comparison in assessing the effectiveness of the interventions.

USAID Uganda School Health and Reading Program, Systemic, Sustained Reading Achievement

Briefer: Final Early Grade Reading Assessment Results from the USAID/Uganda School Health and Reading Program. This briefer compares English and local language reading fluency and comprehension among program and control learners from Primary 1 to Primary 4 (when the program ended) and beyond to Primary 5. It also goes back and compares Primary 2 results for later cohorts. Major findings: • By the end of Primary (P4), program learners were more than twice as likely to be reading 60 or more words per minute in English than learners from control schools. • P4 Program learners were also able to answer almost twice as many comprehension questions correctly in English than control learners. • Program results are proving to be sustainable. P2 learners in subsequent cohorts registered reading gains similar to those found in the initial cohort, and control schools brought into the program also registered gains. Furthermore, these gains are being maintained into P5 (though the program ended in P4)

Uganda Impact Study Report of Tangerine:Coach

This report describes the results of a program designed to expand use of Tangerine:Tutor (now known as Tangerine:Coach), a model scaled successfully in Kenya, to Ugandan coaches. The first aim of the program was to improve the quality of interactions between Coordinating Centre Tutors (CCTs, or “coaches” for convenience) and teachers, as well as the quantity of those interactions (increase the frequency of school visits). During this pilot effort, which lasted approximately 18 months, we studied the added value of a digital case management tool and job aids to improve coaching activities in two Early Grade Reading (EGR) programs in Uganda. The iterative, user-centered design and monitoring focused on changes in the quality and quantity of coach and teacher interactions.The second aim was to improve the quality of communication between CCTs and Teacher Training Colleges (TTCs), between CCTs and districts and between local stakeholders and institutions (i.e., schools, TTCs and district offices) and the Ministry of Education and Sports (MoES). This aim was to be accomplished through a Web-accessible dashboard based on the digital tools that quickly communicated school support coverage, as well as teacher and learner attendance. The pilot effort successfully introduced the case management tool and job aids, built a dashboard to communicate progress and trained users across four regions of Uganda.

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