Malawi National Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) - Final report

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Malawi Teacher Professional Development Support (MTPDS) project is a three-year activity supporting the professional development of teachers in Malawi and implementation of the National Primary Curriculum (NPC) with the goal of improving early grade reading and performance of learners. This report presents the results from a nationally representative study of primary school learners’ early grade reading skills in the Chichewa language, undertaken near the beginning of the school year, in November 2012. It is the third in a series of national samples designed to identify overall skills and gaps in order to inform national-level policies and strategies and determine the influence of policies and projects to address reading over time.

Boys' Underachievement in Education: A Review of the Literature with a focus on Reading in the Early Years

Noticing a pattern of consistent underperformance of boys in reading in many of the EGRA studies that implemented across the world over the past 4 years, USAID commissioned this literature review to understand the reasons behind this trend, especially in countries underrepresented by the research. This report, based on an extensive review of literature, attempts to summarize the factors that explain boys’ underachievement, especially in the context of reading in the early years. It also summarizes interventions undertaken at teacher, school, school-system, community, and policy levels to address this phenomenon. The report is divided into four major sections. Having established in this first section that a gap indeed exists and that there are several key areas of discourse that explain the trends, Section 2 discusses the factors influencing boys’ underachievement in more detail. Section 3 documents and analyzes the interventions that have attempted to address boys’ underperformance and the contributing factors. The final section summarizes and concludes with recommendations for action.

Rapport d'Analyse: Evaluation des Compétences Fondamentales en Lecture au Sénégal

This report describes the results of an early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) conducted in Senegal in two languages: French and Wolof. The research was supported by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and included teacher interviews and classroom observations that captured the language of instruction being used in the classroom in order to explain the context of the findings.

Research on Reading in Morocco: Analysis of Teachers’ Perceptions and Practices

This report is one of three undertaken in the context of a situation analysis of reading in Morocco. The present report analyzes in detail teachers’ attitudes and practices. As a starting point, it addresses the following questions: What are the perceptions that have the most influence on the teaching of reading in the early grades? How do these perceptions impact the professional development of teachers? How do teachers respond to questions about the language of teaching? Are they receptive to the learning of reading in local languages? This third research component studies the perceptions of language use in general and the behavior of teachers specifically. It analyses teachers’ perceptions of the teaching of reading in Arabic and how these perceptions influence their practice.

Research on Reading in Morocco: Analysis of Initial Teacher Training

This report is one of three undertaken in the context of a situation analysis of reading in Morocco. Across these three studies, USAID and the MENFP aimed to study in more detail a few of the factors that favor or harm acquisition of reading in the early grades, namely: • A review of curriculum and learning materials (reading textbooks, teachers’ guides) • This study on initial teacher training and reading • An analysis of the perceptions and attitudes of teachers and how they influence practice The starting point of this research on initial teacher training was the three following research questions: 1. Does the official teacher training curriculum (theoretical and practical) take into consideration recent evidence on how children learn to read in Arabic? 2. What methods for teaching reading do future teachers learn? How are they taught during initial teacher training? 3. Are teachers sufficiently prepared (in quality and duration) to teach reading in Arabic?

Learning Communities Enabled by Mobile Technology: A Case Study of School-Based, In-Service Secondary Teacher Training in Rural Bangladesh

With the aim of providing developing member countries (DMCs) with better guidance to use information and communication technology (ICT) effectively in education, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded a 21-month regional technical assistance (RETA) in Bangladesh, Nepal, Mongolia, and Samoa. The RETA researched approaches to using ICT in education in ways that succeed in improving teaching and learning and also are sustainable given the region’s development challenges. The study equipped two subject trainers, a training coordinator, and a cluster of 10 schools with “smartphones”2 (with video, speakerphone, and three-way calling capabilities), for use by 20 Bangla and math teachers in 10 schools of the Barisal region in southern Bangladesh (for a map indicating the study area, see Appendix 1 of this report). The existing training curriculum was revised from a 2-week, face-to-face workshop to a 6-week distance-mode training based on printed materials and practical application of training content with peers.

Old Technology or New? A Study of Video Recording as an Innovative Method for Primary School Teacher Training in Rural Nepal

With the aim of providing developing member countries (DMCs) with better guidance for using information and communication technology (ICT) effectively in education, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded a 21-month Regional Technical Assistance (RETA) in Bangladesh, Nepal, Mongolia, and Samoa. The RETA researched approaches to using ICT in education that succeed in improving teaching and learning and also are sustainable given the region’s development challenges. The study in Nepal focused on the use of digital video recording and laptops as tools in remote teacher training settings. Although VHS video has been around for many years, and has been common in teacher training in some countries since the 1970s, the advent of digital recording offers many new possibilities for using video in the classroom, as well as in developing-country contexts, because of the compact and easily distributed nature of this technology. This makes video a particularly suitable tool for remote areas with poor communications infrastructure, such as the mountainous regions of Nepal.

Data for Education Programming in Asia and Middle East: Philippines EGRA Four Language Study – 2015 Follow-On

A year after the first baseline EGRA was completed in four language regions, a follow-up survey was administered to samples of 30 to 40 teachers and 375 to 400 students per grade in the same regions (randomly sampled). The sampled teachers were asked about their preparation for, level of comfort with, and understanding of MTB-MLE, and their instructional practice during a reading lesson was observed. Students completed an assessment of their letter sound knowledge, decoding skills, oral reading fluency, and reading comprehension in their mother tongue, and their listening comprehension and ability to read familiar words in Filipino, as well as their oral understanding of common English vocabulary words and phrases.

PhilEd Data II: Early Grade Reading Assessment Results: A cross-language look at MTB-MLE implementation in the Philippines

Following the study completed in 2013, measuring English, Filipino and Ilokano reading skills, this 2014 EGRA study is serves as a baseline for monitoring the government's Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education (MTB-MLE) program by conducting EGRA assessments in four mother-tongue languages—Cebuano (Sinugbuanong Binisaya), Hiligaynon, Ilokano and Maguindanaoan. The survey also included classroom observations of teaching practice and teacher interviews to gather contextual information about the extent of MTB-MLE implementation.

PhilEd Data: Strengthening Information for Education, Policy, Planning and Management in the Philippines. Early Grade Reading Assessment Results (Grades 3 English and Filipino, Grade 1 Ilokano)

The present report describes the results of two reading assessments that were carried out to measure performance of a representative national sample of children reading English and Filipino at the end of grade 3 (Objective 1, above) and a regional sample of children reading Ilokano in grade 1 (Objective 2, above). The first included a national sample of 2,463 students, selected in a stratified, random framework to be representative of six geographic areas: North Luzon, Metro Manila, South Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao, and the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). The second was a regional sample of 494 children in 50 schools selected randomly in Region 1 from all schools who reported having begun implementation of Ilokano instruction in school year 2012–2013 or 2011–2012.

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